Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and specialist avian nectarivore

Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology (2014) volume 167, issue 40-4
Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system.
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Carotenoid supplementation enhances reproductive success in captive strawberry poison frogs

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 6
Amphibians are currently experiencing the most severe declines in biodiversity of any vertebrate, and their requirements for successful reproduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that supplementing the diet of prey ...
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Fat and fatty acid content and composition of forages: A meta-analysis

Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology (2013) Volume 185, Issues 1-2
Forages, through the amount and composition of their fatty acids (FA), and because they represent a major part of ruminant diets, can help improve the nutritional quality of milk and meat. However, no comprehensive dataset is available to estimate fat and FA content and composition of forages.
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Iron indices in bottlenose dolphins

Source: Comparative Medicine (2012) volume 62, issue 6
Bottlenose dolphins can have iron overload (that is, hemochromatosis), and managed populations of dolphins may be more susceptible to this disease than are wild dolphins. Serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, and ferritin were ...
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Short-term digestible energy intake in captive moose on different diets

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 5
Moose (Alces alces) are regularly described as problematic animals in captivity, mainly because of their particular digestive physiology and resulting feeding demands. According to the literature, moose regularly reject non-browse forages offered in captivity, ...
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Effect of a cognitive challenge device containing food and nonfood rewards on chimpanzee well-being

Source: American Journal of Primatology (2013) volume 75, issue 8
Exploration and problem-solving are highly motivated behaviors in non-human primates, but little research has focused on whether cognitively challenging tasks can enhance primates' psychological well-being, particularly in the absence of food rewards.
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Impact of two types of complete pelleted, wild ungulate feeds and two pelleted feed to hay ratios on the development of urolithogenic compounds in meat goats as a model for giraffes

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2013) volume 97, issue 3
Urolith formation has been documented in giraffes and goats. As research in giraffes poses logistical challenges, 16 buck goats were used as a model. The impact of two commercially available, pelleted feeds used for giraffes, ...
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Nutritional and physical characteristics of commercial hand-feeding formulas for parrots

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 5
Hand-rearing is a common practice for the propagation of captive psittacines, however, research on their nutrition is limited and the requirements of growing chicks are not well understood. The nutrition of 15 commercially available parrot hand-feeding formulas ...
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Influence of food limitation on reproductive performance of burrowing owls

Source: Journal of Raptor Research (2013) volume 47, issue 4
Reproductive strategies of birds are shaped by patterns of food supply, yet empirical evidence of the consequences and mechanisms of food limitation on reproductive performance is inconsistent, probably due to variable responses from species of differing life-history strategies.
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Assessment of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for use in evaluating the effects of dietary and environmental management on Hermann's tortoises

Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research (2013) volume 74, issue 6
The objective was to assess dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluating effects of diet and environment on bone mineral density in Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). In the trials 26 Hermann's tortoises within 1 month after hatching were used.
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Apparent total tract macronutrient and energy digestibility of different diets in African wildcats

Source: Zoo biology (2013) volume 32, issue 5
Our objectives were to evaluate the composition of whole 1- to- 3-day-old chicks (Whole), ground adult chicken (Ground), chicken-based canned diet (Canned), and chicken-based extruded diet (Extruded); and evaluate ...
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Evaluation of a fast, objective tool for assessing body condition of budgerigars

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2014) volume 98, issue 2
There is currently no suitable system available for the assessment of budgerigar body condition. A tool has been developed that uses an algorithmic decision tree of yes-no answers based on physical examination to objectively guide the assessor to a body condition score.
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The effects of UV light on calcium metabolism in ball pythons

Source: Veterinary Record (2013) volume 173, issue 14
Despite the popularity of keeping snakes in captivity, there has been limited investigation into the effects of UV radiation on vitamin D levels in snakes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ...
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Are relatively rare antelope narrowly selective feeders? A sable antelope and zebra comparison

Source: Journal of Zoology (2013) volume 291, issue 3
Animals that are relatively rare in local species assemblages are commonly assumed to be narrowly selective in their habitat or dietary requirements, with the latter generally assessed in terms of the range of food types consumed.
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Bear weight management: a diet reduction plan for an obese spectacled bear

Source: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research (2013) volume 1, issue 2
Spectacled bears are agile climbers and many aspects of behaviour in the wild are related to procuring food. In captive situations obesity can result from reduced activity and offering food in excess of energy requirements if food is ...
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Handreared common swifts in a wildlife rehabilitation centre: assessment of growth rates using different diets

Source: Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research (2013) volume 1, issue 2
Common swift orphans represent an important number of admissions to wildlife rehabilitation centres in Europe. Rehabilitation centres may encounter difficulties in the hand-rearing of large numbers of insectivore chicks if they use ...
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Management of a black leopard with seasonal atopy and cutaneous adverse food reaction by using transmucosal immunotherapy

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2013) volume 44, issue 1
An 11-yr-old female black leopard was presented with pruritus and intermittent gastrointestinal distress for a duration of 18 mo. Dietary elimination trial and challenge confirmed food hypersensitivity.
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Influence of diet on calcium metabolism, tissue calcification and urinary sludge in rabbits

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2012) volume 96, issue 5
Rabbits absorb more calcium (Ca) from their diet than they require, and excrete surplus via urine, which therefore contains a typical 'sludge'. This makes rabbits susceptible to Ca-containing uroliths.
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A retrospective study of mortality in varanid lizards at the Bronx zoo: implications for husbandry and reproductive management in zoo

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 2
Varanid lizards have been maintained in zoological parks for more than a century, yet few studies to date have attempted to pinpoint significant health issues affecting their management or areas of captive husbandry that are in need of improvement.
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Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants throughout lactation

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 3
We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year.
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Partial replacement of an artificial nectar diet with native browse for feather-tail gliders in captivity

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 4
Captive-bred feather-tail gliders (Acrobates pygmaeus) housed at Taronga Zoo have had a long history of eye cholesterol plaques that may be associated with a largely sugar-based diet such as artificial nectar.
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Animal fibre: the forgotten nutrient in strict carnivores? First insights in the cheetah

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2013) volume 97, issue 1
As wild felids are obligate carnivores, it is likely that poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissues determine hindgut fermentation, instead of plant fibre. Therefore, faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids ...
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Fatty-acid, amino acid and mineral composition of two milk replacers for marsupials

Source: International Zoo Yearbook (2013) volume 47, issue 1
Although milk replacers are widely used to feed orphaned and injured marsupial joeys in Australia, little is known about the nutrient composition of these foods. We analysed two milk substitutes, Di-Vetelact (DiV) and Wombaroo Kangaroo (Wom) [milk stage >0,7 (joeys having completed 70% of their pouch life)], ...
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Complete nutrient content of four species of feeder insects

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 1
A variety of insects are commonly fed to captive insectivores but detailed nutritional analyses are only available for the most commonly fed species. Soldier fly larvae, Turkestan cockroach nymphs, tebo worms, and adult house flies ...
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The effects of different feed enrichments on survivorship and growth of early juvenile longsnout seahorse

Source: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (2013) volume 44, issue 3
Culturing the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi, remains challenging because unlike most cultured seahorse species, Artemia is not an optimal first feed. Ideally, more nutritious live feeds such as wild plankton or copepods should be used, but are not always readily available.
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Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce and pellets provide a healthy diet?

Source: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery (2012) volume 26, issue 3
Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous.
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Husbandry of a Lake Victoria cichlid in public aquariums: a 20 year retrospective

Source: International Zoo Yearbook (2013) volume 47, issue 1
The Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids comprise a unique 'species flock' of over 500 historic species, of which perhaps only half still exist because of the introduction of invasive species and eutrophication of the Lake.
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Differences in carotenoid accumulation among three feeder-cricket species; implications for carotenoid delivery to captive insectivores

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) volume 31, issue 4
There are a limited number of feeder-invertebrates available to feed captive insectivores, and many are deficient in certain nutrients. Gut-loading is used to increase the diversity of nutrients present in the captive insectivore diet; however, little is known about delivery of carotenoids via gut-loading.
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Differential effects of dietary protein on early life: history and morphological traits in Natterjack toad tadpoles reared in captivity

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 4
The production of high quality amphibian larvae through optimal diets is a critical component of amphibian conservation breeding programs. Larval period, survival, body weight and total length are frequently used as metrics of adequate nutrition.
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Serum concentrations of vitamins and trace elements in clinically healthy greater flamingos and lesser flamingo

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2013) volume 44, issue 2
Analysis of vitamins and trace elements has gained importance in avian medicine in recent years. It has become evident that interpretation should be based on species-specific reference intervals due to differences in intervals between species.
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Prevalence of regurgitation and reingestion in orangutans housed in North American zoos and an examination of factors influencing its occurrence

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) volume 31, issue 5
Very little research has explored regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) in orangutans. We first aimed to determine the prevalence of R/R in the North American zoo population through a survey of accredited institutions.
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Correlations of capture, transport, and nutrition with spinal deformities in sandtiger sharks in public aquaria

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2012) volume 43, issue 4
A number of captive sandtiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria have developed spinal deformities over the past decade, ranging in severity from mild curvature to spinal fracture and severe subluxation.
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A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates

Source: Zoo Biology (2013) volume 32, issue 1
In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, ...
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Notes on husbandry, reproduction and development in the Pacific horned frog , with comments on its amplexus

Source: International Zoo Yearbook (2013) volume 47, issue 1
Aspects related to the natural history and behaviour of the Pacific horned frog Ceratophrys stolzmanni were investigated, mostly by observations under laboratory conditions.
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Energy intake for maintenance in a mammal with a low basal metabolism, the giant anteater

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2012) volume 96, issue 5
Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are among those mammals for which a particularly low metabolism has been reported. In order to verify presumably low requirements for energy, we used eight anteaters ...
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Iron storage disorders in captive wild mammals: the comparative evidence

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2012) volume 43, issue 3s
Excessive burden of iron, or iron storage disease (ISD), has been reported in a large variety of captive mammal species, including browsing rhinoceroses; tapirs; fruit bats; lemurs; marmosets and some other primates; ...
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Dry matter and calcium digestibility in captive veiled chameleons

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2012) volume 96, issue 5
Although metabolic bone disease (MBD) is a very common disease in reptiles kept as pets, empirical data on the calcium (Ca) metabolism of reptiles are still scarce.
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Husbandry and growth rates of neonate epaulette sharks in captivity

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) volume 31, issue 6
In this report, I describe husbandry techniques that are used to successfully hatch and raise epaulette sharks, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, in captivity. Egg cases and hatchlings were held in ...
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Hand-rearing and sex determination tool for the Taveta golden weaver

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) volume 31, issue 5
Improvements in the ability to hand-rear birds in captivity have aided zoological institutions in the sustainable management of these species, and have provided opportunities to examine their physical growth in varying conditions.
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Browse diversity and iron loading in captive sumatran rhinoceroses: a comparison of sanctuary and zoological populations

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2012) volume 43, issue 3s
Iron storage disease (ISD) is now recognized as a serious clinical disorder acquired by two species of browsing rhinoceroses, the African black and the Asian Sumatran rhinoceroses, when displaced from their natural habitats.
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Growth pattern differences of captive born Antillean manatee calves and those rescued in the Brazilian northeastern coast

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2012) volume 43, issues 3
The aim of this work was to analyze whether there are differences between the development pattern of Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves born in captivity and those rescued and kept under rehabilitation.
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Comparison of clinical parameters in captive Cracidae fed traditional and extruded diets

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2011) volume 42, issue 3
The Cracidae family of neotropical birds is regarded as one of the most severely threatened in the world. They traditionally have been extensively hunted, and, thus, ex situ efforts for their conservation are recommended and involve the optimization of their care in captivity.
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Using environmental enrichment to reduce the expression of abnormal behaviours in Greater rhea at Belo Horizonte Zoo

Source: International Zoo Yearbook (2013)Volume 47, issue 1
Animals kept by zoos may express abnormal behaviours that are indicators of poor welfare. Environmental enrichment is a technique of providing items to animals that stimulate the expression of normal behaviours.
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Growth, reproductive performances and brood quality of long snout seahorse fed enriched shrimp diets

Source: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (2012) volume 43, issue 6
This investigation examined the effect of using enriched shrimp (Atlantic ditch shrimp, Palaemonetes varians) diets on growth of long snout seahorse, Hippocampus guttulatus, and its effect on the reproduction rate and brood quality.
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Captive husbandry and socialization of the red-billed chough

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) volume 31, issue 6
Since the 1970s, Paradise Park Wildlife Sanctuary in Cornwall, United Kingdom, has built up a captive flock of red-billed choughs Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax and over 30 years has developed successful methods of keeping, breeding, and appropriately socializing them in captivity.
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Plant phenolics and their potential role in mitigating iron overload disorder in wild animals

Souce: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2012) volume 43, 3suppl: S74-S82
Phenolic compounds are bioactive chemicals found in all vascular plants but are difficult to characterize and quantify, and comparative analyses on these compounds are challenging due to chemical structure complexity and inconsistent laboratory methodologies employed historically.
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Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce and pellets provide a healthy diet?

Source: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2012, volume 26, issue 3
Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous.
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Test of a body condition index with amphibians

Source: Journal of Herpetology, 2012, volume 46, issue 3
We conducted experimental feeding trials with larval and juvenile Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Rough-skinned Newts (Taricha granulosa) to assess the accuracy of the scaled mass index (SMI).
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Dietary shifts affect the gastrointestinal microflora of the giant panda

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2012 advance e-alert
Giant pandas exhibit seasonal changes in bamboo plant part preference. The influences on the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) microbial populations were evaluated during a 14-month period for a pair of adult male and female giant pandas housed at ...
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Effects of feeding a high omega-3 fatty acids diet in dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2012 Advance e-alert
The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blinded trial was to compare the effect of a veterinary therapeutic diet (VTD) rich in omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3) from fish origin to a regular diet used as control (CTR) over a period of 13 weeks in dogs afflicted by naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA).
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Digestibility of feeding regimes of the red-tailed phascogale and the kultarr in captivity

Source: Australian Journal of Zoology, 2012, volume 59, issue 4
Digestibility was studied in the red-tailed phascogale and the kultarr, small insectivorous/carnivorous marsupials, to determine their nutrient requirements in captivity. The marsupials were fed a range of insects, ...
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Hand-rearing and reintroduction of woolly monkey at Monkey World

Source: International Zoo Yearbook, 2012, volume 46, issue 1
Woolly monkey populations are decreasing in the wild and in captivity. Woolly monkeys have a reputation for being difficult to keep and breed, infant mortality is high and hand-rearing is rarely attempted or successful.
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An investigation into the chemical composition of alternative invertebrate prey

Source: Zoo Biology, 2012, volume 31, issue 1
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of eight invertebrate species and evaluate their suitability as alternative prey. The species selected were rusty red cockroaches (Blatta lateralis), ...
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Effect of feed protein and carbohydrate levels on feed intake, growth, and gonad production of the sea urchin

Source: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 2012, volume 43, issue 2
In this study, we evaluated protein and carbohydrate levels in cold-extruded dry diets. Sea urchins (12.6 +/- 0.12 SE g wet weight, 29.5 +/- 0.11 SE mm diameter) were collected from St. Joseph Bay, Florida (30°N, 85.5°W), and transported to the Texas Agrilife Research Mariculture Laboratory in Port Aransas, Texas.
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Seasonal, sex and live weight variations in feed and water consumption of adult captive African giant rats kept individually in cages

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2012, march advance e-alert
Adult African Giant rats (AGRs) (n = 231) of both sexes (117 bucks, 114 does) were live-trapped in the wild in Zaria, Nigeria. Live weight (LW), daily feed consumption (FC) and water consumption (WC) of the AGRs were measured during ...
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Serum iron metabolites in an opportunistic sample of different captive primate species

Source: International Zoo Yearbook, 2012, volume 46, issue 1
Previous reports in the literature indicate that primate species differ in their iron metabolism. Analyses were carried out of 229 serum samples of 18 different species, including marmosets, lemurs, ...
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General principles of nutrition for the newly hatched chick

Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 2012, volume 15, issue 2
Nutrition of the newly hatched chick is complex and requires an understanding of the wild-type feeding strategy of the species, the known nutrient requirements of birds, and appropriate application to the species in question.
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Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants throughout lactation

Source: Zoo Biology, 2012, advance e-alert
We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year.
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Assimilation efficiency and gut passage time in an African elapid snake

Source: African Journal of Herpetology (2012) volume 61, issue 1
We measured apparent assimilation efficiency (AAE) and gut passage time in the African elapid snake Hemachatus haemachatus under laboratory conditions. AAE was dependent on food type, being 89.8% when snakes were fed frogs and 82.8% when fed mice.
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A case study of Malayan tapir husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections

Source: Zoo Biology (2012) 00, 1-16 advance e-alert.
The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations.
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Effect of different live prey on spawning quality of short-snouted seahorse

Source: Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, (2012), volume 43, issue 2
The importance of a suitable diet for reproduction has been recognized as one of the major factors in ornamental aquaculture. In seahorses, mysids have been described as preys in the wild.
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Toucan hand feeding and nestling growth

Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 2012, volume 15, issue 2
A retrospective analysis of hand-feeding records and growth data from 3 facilities was performed to determine the growth pattern for 8 toucan species raised in captivity. General philosophies of breeding and rearing were similar but approaches to hand-feeding varied.
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Wheat germ: not only a by-product

Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2012, volume 63, suppl 1
The wheat germ (embryonic axis and scutellum) represents about 2.5-3.8% of total seed weight and is an important by-product of the flour milling industry. The germ contains about 10-15% lipids, 26-35% proteins, 17% sugars, ...
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Consequences of compensatory growth in an amphibian

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2012, volume 286, issue 2
Compensatory growth, or catch-up growth, occurs when an organism grows faster than the optimal rate after a period of growth restriction. The evolved optimal growth rate maximizes an animal's fitness potential while preserving tissue quality.
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Animal-Assisted Activity at A. Meyer Children's Hospital: A Pilot Study

Source: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Sep;3(3):379-83
The authors systematically studied the introduction of animal-assisted activity into a children's hospital in Italy. This pilot study examined the reactions of children, their parents and the hospital staff and the hospital-wide infection rate before and after the introduction of animals.
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Animal-assisted interventions in internal and rehabilitation medicine: a review of the recent literature

Source: Panminerva Med. 2011 Jun;53(2):129-36
While conventional wisdom has always affirmed the value of animals in promoting human well-being, only recently has their therapeutic role in medicine become the focus of dedicated research.
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Milk composition in free-ranging polar bears as a model for captive rearing milk formula

Source: Zoo Biology 2011, volume 30, issue 5
The goals of this study were to have an improved understanding of milk composition and to help create a suitable milk formula for cubs raised in captivity. Milk samples were evaluated for fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate, ...
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Feed consumption, diet digestibility and mineral utilization in captive blackbuck fed different levels of concentrates

Source: J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr, 2011 Nov 17, epub ahead of print
A feeding trial was conducted to know the level of concentrates in the diet of Antelope cervicapra at which diet digestibility and mineral utilization were optimum. Fifteen blackbucks (25-33 kg BW) were distributed into three groups of five each.
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Differences in carotenoid accumulation among three feeder-cricket species: implications for carotenoid delivery to captive insectivores

Source: Zoo Biology, 2011, volume 30
There are a limited number of feeder-invertebrates available to feed captive insectivores, and many are deficient in certain nutrients. Gut-loading is used to increase the diversity of nutrients present in the ...
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Pre-breeding diet influences ornament size in the Rhinoceros Auklet

Source: Ibis , 2010, volume 152, issue 1
Understanding the mechanisms that influence variation in sexually selected ornaments in seabirds has been challenging owing to the difficulty of capturing and sampling individuals outside of the breeding period when ornaments are usually grown.
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Dietary choices by four captive slender lorises when presented with various insect life stages

Source: Zoo Biology, 2011, volume 30, issue 2
The slender loris is a rare, nocturnal prosimian found only in the tropical rainforest of southern India and Sri Lanka. Little is known about their diet, though it is assumed that insects comprise a majority of their wild diet.
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A Comparison of Oral and Topical Vitamin A Supplementation in African Foam-Nesting Frogs

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2010, volume 41, issue 3
Vitamin A is essential for a variety of functions, including cellular differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, vision, immune response, and reproduction. A captive population of African foam-nesting frogs ...
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Bacteriologic and nutritional evaluation of a commercial raw meat diet as part of a raw meat safety program

Source: Zoo Biology (2011) volume 30
This study evaluated selected bacteriologic and nutritional components of a commercially prepared ground raw horsemeat diet as part of a raw meat safety program. Six lots of meat were analyzed in triplicate.
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Fish quarantine: current practices in public zoos and aquaria

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine (2011), volume 42, issue 4
The primary goal of quarantine is to reduce the risk of introducing infectious diseases into established collections. Fish quarantine is inherently complex because of the variety of species, environmental requirements, and facilities.
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Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits and guinea pigs, on a hay-only diet

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2011, volume 95, issue 5
A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents.
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Spices as functional foods

Source: Critical Reviews in Food and Nutrition Science, 2011, volume 51, issue 1
Spices and aromatic herbs have been used since antiquity as preservatives, colorants, and flavor enhancers. Spices, which have long been the basis of traditional medicine in many countries, have also been the ...
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Energy digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented diets.

Source: Zoo Biology, 2011, volume 30, issue 2
Endangered giant pandas are bears (Family Ursidae), within the order Carnivora. They specialize on an herbivorous diet of bamboo yet retain a gastrointestinal tract typical of their carnivorous ancestry.
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Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee compared to romaine lettuce

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 2010, volume 41, issue 4
Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], ...
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Evaluation of two milk replacers fed to hand-reared cheetah cubs: nutrient composition, apparent total tract digestibility, and comparison to maternal cheetah milk

Source: Zoo Biology, 2011, volume 30, issue 4
Commercially prepared milk replacers are frequently used to provide the sole source of nutrition for hand-reared cheetah cubs (Acinonyx jubatus). The nutrient composition of two commonly used milk replacers was determined.
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The horse-human dyad: Can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?

Source: The Veterinary Journal, 2009, volume 181, issue 1
This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions.
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The significance of vitamin D for fish: a review

Source: Aquaculture Nutrition, 2010, volume 16, issue 1
Fish store large quantities of vitamin D in their liver and fat tissues, including the fat associated with muscle, and this makes fish an important dietary source of vitamin D. Fish do not synthesize vitamin D and are fully dependent on dietary sources to meet their requirement.
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Differences between sexes in digestive efficiency of the white stork under experimental conditions

Source: Folia Biologica, 2009, volume 57, issue 3
Sex differences in digestive performance may be related to food contents, to body size as well as many other physiological traits. However, evidence for sex differences in the digestion of birds, especially in the case of predators, is scarce.
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Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables

Source: Journal of Food Science, 2009, volume 74, issue 3
The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity ...
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The influence of feeding, enrichment, and seasonal context on the behavior of Pacific Walruses

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 3
Though some research exists concerning general behavior and activity patterns of Walruses in zoos or aquariums, less is known about how these patterns change in response to various environmental and temporal contexts.
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Quantifying the vitamin D3 synthesizing potential of UVB lamps at specific distances over time.

Source: Zoo Biology 2010, volume 29, issue 6
The purpose of this study was to quantify the ultraviolet B (UVB) output and in vitro previtamin D(3) synthesis over time from various artificial light sources. Three incandescent lamps, T-Rex Active UVHeat 160 watt spot, ...
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Bystanders affect the outcome of mother–infant interactions in rhesus macaques

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2009, volume 276, nr 1665
Animal communication involves the transfer of information between a sender and one or more receivers. However, such interactions do not happen in a social vacuum; third parties are typically present, who can potentially eavesdrop upon or intervene in the interaction.
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Carnivorous mammals: nutrient digestibility and energy evaluation.

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 6
Estimating the energy content is the first step in diet formulation, as it determines the amount of food eaten and hence the concentration of nutrients required to meet the animal's requirements. Additionally, being able to ...
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How does the freezer burn our food?

Source: Journal of Food Science Education, 2009, volume 8, issue 2
Freezer burn is a common problem that significantly affects the color, texture, and flavor of frozen foods. Food science students should be able to clearly explain the causes and consequences of freezer burn.
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Nutritional composition and digestibility by ocelots of whole animals and a commercial diet.

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 6
Felids are adapted to eat whole prey, but in North American zoos are usually fed processed diets based on muscle meat. We analyzed proximate nutrient composition and digestibility by ocelots of a commercial processed diet and whole animals of five species.
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Dietary copper affects survival, growth, and reproduction in the sea urchin

Source: Journal of Shellfish Research, 2010, volume 29, issue 4
Copper is an essential micronutrient in the diets of animals. It is a component of many enzymes involved in energy production, participates in immune function, and protects cells from free radicals. However, excessive levels in the diet can be toxic.
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Biochemical and physiological observations in meerkats at two zoos during a dietary transition to a diet designed for insectivores

Source: Zoo Biology, 2009, volume 28, issue 4
This research (involving two separate institutions) assessed the serum chemistries and body weights of meerkats over a 6-10-week feeding trial to determine the acceptability of a commercially available manufactured diet intended for the feeding of insectivorous animals.
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A fresh look at metabolic bone diseases in reptiles and amphibians

Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 2010, volume 13, issue 3
Metabolic bone diseases (MBDs) are a common presenting complaint in reptiles and amphibians to veterinarians; however, understanding of the causes and diagnostic and treatment options is often extrapolated from human or other mammalian medicine models.
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An exploratory analysis of the suitability of diets fed to a flightless insectivore, the North Island brown kiwi , in New Zealand

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 5
The ingredients and the macro- and micro-nutrient contents of diets that are fed to captive kiwi at seven New Zealand holding facilities were subject to analysis. The nutrient compositions were compared ...
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Habituation to environmental enrichment in captive sloth bears - effect on stereotypies

Source: Zoo Biology 2010, volume 29, issue 6
The benefits to captive animals of environmental enrichment (EE) are widely recognized. Few studies have, however, studied how to maximise the effect of EE. One issue with EE programs seems to be habituation to the enrichment device.
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The influence of feeding, enrichment and seasonal context on the behavior of Pacific walruses

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 3
Though some research exists concerning general behavior and activity patterns of Walruses in zoos or aquariums, less is known about how these patterns change in response to various environmental and temporal contexts.
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Metabolism, interactions, requirements and functions of vitamin E in fish

Source: Aquaculture Nutrition, 2011, volume 17, issue 1
Vitamin E is a generic term for a group of lipid-soluble molecules, the tocopherols and tocotrienols, which have a function in the protection of organisms against lipid oxidation and which also may have other, ...
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Effect of tannic acid on iron absorption in straw-colored fruit bats

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 3
Excessive absorption and subsequent storage of dietary iron has been found in a variety of captively held birds and mammals, including fruit bats. It is thought that feeding a diet that is low in iron can prevent the onset of this disease; ...
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The effectiveness of indigestible markers for identifying individual animal feces and their prevalence of use in North American zoos

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29
Techniques for analyzing hormone metabolites in animal excreta have created many opportunities for noninvasive monitoring of health, reproduction, and welfare in zoo animals, but can be difficult to implement when individual samples are not readily identifiable in animal groups.
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A survey of the management and development of captive African elephant calves: birth to three months of age

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 2
We used four surveys to collect information about the birth, physical growth, and behavioral development of 12 African elephant calves born in captivity. The management of the birth process and neonatal care involved a...
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A complex enrichment diet improves growth and health in the endangered Wyoming toad

Source: Zoo Biology, 2009, volume 28, issue 3
The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) suffers nutrition related pathologies including poor growth and feeding difficulties from squamous metaplasia. Juvenile B. baxteri were each fed three supplemented feeder diets ...
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Guidelines and ethical considerations for housing and management of psittacine birds used in research

Source: ILAR Journal, 2010, volume 51, issue 4
The Psittaciformes are a large order of landbirds comprising over 350 species in about 83 genera. In 2009, 141 published studies implicated parrots as research subjects; in 31 of these studies, 483 individuals from 45 different species could be considered laboratory animals.
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Metabolic consequences of feeding and fasting on nutritionally different diets in the wolf spider

Source: Journal of Insect Physiology, 2010, volume 56, issue 9
We investigated whether spiders fed lipid-rich rather than protein-rich prey elevate metabolism to avoid carrying excessive lipid deposits, or whether they store ingested lipids as a buffer against possible future starvation.
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Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe

Source: Zoo Biology, 2010, volume 29, issue 4
The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, ...
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Low optimal temperatures for food conversion and growth in the big-headed turtle

Source: Aquaculture, 2009, volume 295(1-2)
We held juvenile big-headed turtles, from eastern China, at temperatures from 20 to 29.4 °C to determine effects on feeding, growth and food conversion. Food intake increased significantly from 20 to 22.4 °C, remained high until 27.1 °C, and then ...
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Protein and amino acid nutrition and metabolism in fish: current knowledge and future needs

Source: Aquaculture Research, 2010, volume 41, issue 3
Optimising the amino acid supply in tune with the requirements and improving protein utilization for body protein growth with limited impacts on the environment in terms of nutrient loads is a generic imperative in all animal production systems.
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Nutritional content of the diets of free-living scarlet macaw chicks in southeastern Peru

Source: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 2010, volume 24, issue 1
To provide novel information on psittacine diets, we analyzed the texture, crude protein, crude fat, Ca, P (total), Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations of crop contents from 10 free-living ...
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Nutritional Quality of Natural Foods of Desert Tortoises

Source: Journal of Herpetology, 2010, volume 44, issue 1
Exotic plants can make up a major component of the diet for some Desert Tortoises in the Mojave Desert. If introduced plants differ nutritionally from native plants, they may influence the growth and welfare of young tortoises.
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Post-weaning maternal effects and the evolution of female dominance in the spotted hyena

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2009, volume 276, nr 1665
Mammalian societies in which females dominate males are rare, and the factors favouring the evolution of female dominance have yet to be clearly identified. We propose a new hypothesis for the evolution of female dominance and test its predictions with ...
Lees verder

A fresh look at metabolic bone diseases in reptiles and amphibians

Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, 2010, volume 13, issue 3
Metabolic bone diseases (MBDs) are a common presenting complaint in reptiles and amphibians to veterinarians; however, understanding of the causes and diagnostic and treatment options is often extrapolated from human or other mammalian medicine models.
Lees verder

Live feeds for early stages of fish rearing

Source: Aquaculture Research, 2010, volume 41, issue 5
Despite the recent progress in the production of inert diets for fish larvae, feeding of most species of interest for aquaculture still relies on live feeds during the early life stages. Independently of their nutritional value, live feeds are ...
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Effects of positive interaction with caretakers on the behaviour of socially housed common marmosets

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, vol 120, issue 1-2
Every aspect of the life of the captive non-human primates should be carefully attended to, as updated refinement concept recommends. Interaction with humans as environmental enrichment for these animals is believed to be of value, but it has been subject to little quantitative evaluation.
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Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: A review with consideration of comparative aspects

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 121, issue 2
Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans.
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Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs

Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2009, volume 60, issue 7
The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to ...
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Ultraviolet radiation and Vitamin D3 in amphibian health, behaviour, diet and conservation.

Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 2009, volume 154, issue 2
Amphibians are currently suffering a period of mass extinction with approximately 20% of species under severe threat and more than 120 species already extinct. In light of this crisis there is an urgency to establish ...
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Effect of physical activity and dry food on the development of feline type 2 diabetes mellitus

Source: The Veterinary Journal, 2009, volume 179, issue 2
With domestication and urbanisation, cats have transformed from being hunting animals that eat protein-rich prey into more sedentary animals that eat a carbohydrate-rich diet. It was hypothesised that a high intake of dry cat food and a lack of physical activity
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Effect of weaning time on the growth rate and food intake of the spiny mouse pup

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 279, issue 2
The spiny mouse produces well-developed pups although it is a relatively small mammal (45 g). We envisioned two opposing hypotheses on the effect of early weaning on the growth rate of pups. The first predicts little effect since the increase in energy intake of
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The reliability of palatability estimates obtained from rumen contents analysis and a field-based index of diet selection

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 3
Understanding herbivore foraging behaviour is often limited by not knowing the palatability of food items. Electivity indices can overcome this challenge by relating the consumption of food items to their relative abundance in the environment.
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The effect of randomly altering the time and location of feeding on the behaviour of captive coyotes

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 120, issue 3-4
Captive carnivores appear highly susceptible to the negative effects of predictable feeding routines. Current research and reviews suggest feeding unpredictably may increase species typical behaviour, but ...
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Effect of dietary fibre type on physical activity and behaviour in kennelled dogs

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 121, issue 1
Dog diets may differ in their effectiveness of maintaining satiety after a meal. Consequently, sensations of hunger, feeding motivation, physical activity, and sensitivity to environmental stressors may be increased.
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There will be blood: autohaemorrhage behaviour as part of the defence repertoire of an insect

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 4
Armoured ground crickets have an arsenal of defence mechanisms in response to attack. Males but not females can stridulate when attacked, while both sexes will bite and regurgitate upon provocation.
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Can captivity lead to inter-species mating in two Mesocricetus hamster species?

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 4
In two closely related species, females generally prefer conspecific males over heterospecific males. We found that estrous (but not diestrous) female Syrian hamsters prefer the odors of conspecific males to odors of Turkish hamsters.
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Cellular and humoral immunodepression in vultures feeding upon medicated livestock carrion

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2009, volume 276, nr 1665
Veterinary pharmaceuticals contained in dead livestock may be ingested by avian scavengers and negatively affect their health and consequently their population dynamics and conservation.
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Preferences of Orange-winged Amazon parrots for cage enrichment devices

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 120, issue 3-4
Cage enrichment devices, frequently termed cage "toys", are often provided to captive parrots as a means of promoting a behaviorally stimulating environment, but it is not clear whether particular properties of these devices are more effective than others in eliciting engagement with them.
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Increased mass of reticulo-rumen tissue and contents with advancing age in Svalbard reindeer

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 1
Little is known about the effect of age on digestive processes in wild cervids. One potentially important mechanism is that tooth wear alters the occlusal surface topography, causing gradual loss of functionality.
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A novel mating system in a solitary carnivore: the fossa

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 277, issue 3
The mating strategies of male mammals have long been treated as broadly predictable on the basis of just two factors: the dispersion of females and the benefit of paternal care to male reproductive success.
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Animal-visitor interactions in the modern zoo: Conflicts and interventions

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 120, issue 1-2
Animal welfare, education, conservation, research, and entertainment are major goals of modern zoos, but they can be in conflict. For example, visitors enjoy learning about and observing natural behavior in captive animals, but visitors often want to observe and interact with the animals in close proximity.
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Indoor confinement and physical inactivity rather than the proportion of dry food are risk factors in the development of feline type 2 diabetes mellitus

Source: Veterinary Journal, 2009, volume 179, issue 2
With domestication and urbanisation, cats have transformed from being hunting animals that eat protein-rich prey into more sedentary animals that eat a carbohydrate-rich diet.
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Effects of supplemental food on the social organization of Mongolian gerbils during the breeding season

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 3
Social groups occur in many rodents and vary in size and complexity under varying environments. Food availability is often limited in northern temperate regions and alters the life history and behavior of rodents.
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Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others

Source: Biology Letters, 2008, volume 4, nr 5
Male blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) of Budongo Forest, Uganda, produce two acoustically distinct alarm calls: hacks to crowned eagles and pyows to leopards and a range of other disturbances.
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Energy expenditure during level locomotion in large desert ungulates: the one-humped camel and the domestic donkey

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 277, issue 3
This study sought to quantify the rate of energy expenditure (VO2), the total cost of transport (COTtot) and the net cost of transport (COTnet) in camels and donkeys during level locomotion.
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Effect of fructan supplementation of digestion and fecal microbiota population

Source: Journal of Animal Science, 2009, volume 87, issue 10
Five ileal-cannulated adult dogs were utilized in a 5 x 5 Latin square design to determine the effects of fructan type and concentration on nutrient digestibility, stool metabolite concentrations, and fecal microbiota.
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Direct paternal care in black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 278, issue 2
Mothers of many colobines permit other females or juveniles to have contact with their infants, but paternal care has rarely been reported. This paper reports paternal care in free-ranging black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys ...
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Feeding enrichment in an opportunistic carnivore: The red fox

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 116, issue 2-4
In captive carnivores, species-specific behaviour is often restricted by inadequate feeding regimens. Feeding live prey is not feasible in most places and food delivery is often highly predictable in space and time which is considerably different from the situation in the wild.
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To feed or to wrap? Female silk cues elicit male nuptial gift construction in a semiaquatic trechaleid spider

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 277, issue 4
By wrapping prey and offering it as a nuptial gift, males can obtain mating and/or parental benefits despite some costs. Males of the Neotropical semiaquatic spider Paratrechalea ornata (Trechaleidae) offer females a nuptial gift consisting of a prey item wrapped in silk.
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Handling-related tail loss in an endangered skink: incidence, correlates and a possible solution

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2009, volume 277, issue 3
Caudal autotomy (tail loss) during capture and handling is widely reported among several families of lizards. Autotomy causes elevated stress levels in lizards, and imposes a significant fitness cost on autotomized individuals.
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Effect of type of grain and feed processing on gastrointestinal retention times in horses

Source: Journal of Animal Science, 2009, volume 87, issue 12
Gastrointestinal retention time may affect digestive processes in the horse. To evaluate the effect of processing of grains on mean retention time in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract, ...
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Exposure to infant scent lowers serum testosterone in father common marmosets

Source: Biology Letters, 2008, volume 4, nr 6
Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) males are bi-parental non-human primates that show extensive paternal behaviour. Fathers are in direct sensory contact with their infants during the natal period.
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Performance and dietary preferences of white-tailed deer grazing in north central Alberta

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2009, volume 93, issue 6
Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer.
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Carry-over effect of captive breeding reduces reproductive fitness of wild-born descendants in the wild

Source: Biology Letters, 2009, volume 5, nr 5
Supplementation of wild populations with captive-bred organisms is a common practice for conservation of threatened wild populations. Yet it is largely unknown whether such programmes actually help population size recovery.
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Does simple feeding enrichment raise activity levels of captive ring-tailed lemurs?

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 116, issue 1
Feeding enrichment is a commonly proposed way to promote natural behavior, greater activity levels and improved health in captive primates, but in many cases the methods have not been formally tested, especially for particular groups such as lemurs.
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The effects of cage volume and cage shape on the condition and behaviour of captive European starlings

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 116, issue 2-4
Cage size is widely recognised as an important determinant of captive animal welfare, but in contrast, cage shape has received far less attention. Husbandry recommendations for flying birds state that cages should be long in shape because this allows greater potential for flight.
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Diet composition, food intake, body condition, and fecal consistency in captive tapirs in UK collections

Source: Zoo Biology 2009, volume 28, issue 4
Intake measurements were carried out in 22 tapirs from seven UK zoological collections. Dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 48 to 86 g/kg0.75/d. Across collections, the highest proportion of the ingested diet consisted of pelleted feeds ...
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Nutrient balance affects foraging behaviour of a trap-building predator

Source: Biology Letters, 2009, volume 5, nr 6
Predator foraging may be affected by previous prey capture, but it is unknown how nutrient balance affects foraging behaviour. Here, we use a trap-building predator to test whether nutrients from previous prey captures affect foraging behaviour.
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Sensory stimulation as environmental enrichment for captive animals: A review

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 118 issue 1-2
In the wild, animals are exposed to an ever-changing array of sensory stimuli. The captive environment, by contrast, is generally much more impoverished in terms of the sensory cues it offers the animals housed within.
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Patterns of injury in zoo-housed spider monkeys: A problem with males?

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2009, volume 116, issue 2-4
Aggression among wild spider monkeys is most frequently reported to occur between the sexes, with adult males directing aggression towards adult females and the aggression is normally non-injurious.
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Effect of live yeast culture supplementation on hindgut microbial communities and their polysaccharidase and glycoside hydrolase activities in horses fed a high-fiber or high-starch diet

Source: Journal of Animal Science, 2009, volume 87, issue 9
Four cecum and right ventral colon-fistulated horses were assigned in a 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed a high-fiber or a high-starch diet with or without live yeast.
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Intake and digestion of horned guan diets measured in three Mexican zoos

Source: Zoo Biology 2009, volume 28, issue 4
We conducted nutritional analyses of diets offered to and ingested by seven pairs of horned guans in three zoos. Digestibility was calculated with individually housed birds (n=1 at each zoo).
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Immunobiochemical status of sheep exposed to periods of experimental protein deficit and realimentation

Source: Journal of Animal Science, 2009, volume 87, issue 8
Immunobiochemical status of sheep exposed to periods of experimental protein deficit and realimentation was studied in 12 sheep (15 mo) randomly distributed into 2 equal groups and ...
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Activity budgets and the relationship between feeding and stereotypic behaviors in Asian elephants in a Zoo

Source: Zoo Biology 2009, volume 28, issue 2
Activity budgets were studied in eight Asian elephants at Chester Zoo (UK) for 35 days, between January and November 1999. Recordings were made between 10:00 and 16:00 hr (with most behavior frequencies calculated between 10:00 and 14:00 hr).
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Interrelationships of dogs and cats living under the same roof

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 113, issue 1-3
In the process of domestication, dogs and cats have undergone thousands of years of genetic changes that have adapted them to the human environment. Both species have acquired a global distribution and it has become quite common to find homes with the two living side by side.
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The effect of pregnancy and lactation on food intake, gastrointestinal anatomy and the absorptive capacity of the small intestine in the albino rat

Source: British Journal of Nutrition, 1975, volume 35
Food consumption, live weight, anatomical measurements on the gut organs and the absorptive capacity of the small intestine for L-leucine and D(+)-glucose were made on virgin (control), pregnant and lactating albino rats.
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Prenatal exposure to a maternal low-protein diet programmes a preference for high-fat foods in the young adult rat

Source: British Journal of Nutrition, 2004, volume 92
Nutrient restriction in pregnancy has been shown to programme adult obesity. Modulation of feeding behaviour may provide a mechanism through which obesity may be programmed. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a control diet or a low-protein (LP) diet throughout gestation.
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Effect of dilution degree of commercial nectar and provision of fruit on food, energy and nutrient intake in two rainbow lorikeet subspecies

Source: Zoo Biology 2009, volume 28, issue 2
A feeding trial was performed on adult rainbow lorikeets of two subspecies: six green-naped lorikeets and six red-breasted lorikeets. Throughout the entire trial, half of the birds from each subspecies had ad libitum access to ...
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Dogs can discriminate barks from different situations

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 114, issue 1-2
We investigated if dogs can discriminate barks of another individual recorded in two markedly different situations: (a) when a stranger entered the property where the dog lived, and (b) when the dog was tethered to a tree and left alone.
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Mineral absorption in tapirs as compared to the domestic horse

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2009, volume 93, issue 6
To test whether mineral recommendations for horses are likely to guarantee adequate mineral provision for tapirs, we investigated the apparent absorption (aA) of macro and micro-minerals in 18 tapirs from five zoological institutions in a total of 24 feeding trials with total faecal collection.
Lees verder

A complex enrichment diet improves growth and health in the endangered Wyoming toad

Source: Zoo Biology 2009, volume 28, issue 3
The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) suffers nutrition related pathologies including poor growth and feeding difficulties from squamous metaplasia. Juvenile toads were each fed three supplemented feeder diets...
Lees verder

The benefits of high rank in the wintertime—A study of the Icelandic horse

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 114, issue 3-4
Behaviour and location of individuals in five groups of Icelandic horses kept in large pastures was documented to see if rank position influenced access to hay and shelter in the wintertime.
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The number of subordinates moderates intrasexual competition among males in cooperatively breeding meerkats

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2008, vol 275, issue 1631
For dominant individuals in cooperatively breeding species, the presence of subordinates is associated with both benefits (i.e. increased reproductive output and other group-living benefits) and costs (i.e. intrasexual competition on reproduction).
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Breed differences in canine aggression

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 114, issue 3-4
Canine aggression poses serious public health and animal welfare concerns. Most of what is understood about breed differences in aggression comes from reports based on bite statistics, behavior clinic caseloads, and experts' opinions.
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Predator-specific camouflage in chameleons

Source: Biology Letters, 2008, volume 4, issue 4
A crucial problem for most animals is how to deal with multiple types of predator, which differ in their sensory capabilities and methods of prey detection. For animals capable of rapid colour change, one potential strategy is to ...
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Golden hamsters are nocturnal in captivity but diurnal in nature

Source: Biology Letters, 2008, volume 4, issue 3
Daily activity rhythms are nearly universal among animals and their specific pattern is an adaptation of each species to its ecological niche. Owing to the extremely consistent nocturnal patterns of activity shown by golden hamsters...
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Foraging 'enrichment' as treatment for pterotillomania

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 111, issue 1-2
This study was performed to determine whether foraging 'enrichment' reduces self-directed psychogenic feather picking (pterotillomania) in parrots. A positive correlation between increased foraging time and improvement of feather score was hypothesised.
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Novel enrichment on an unwanted behaviour of captive bonobos

Source: Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 112, issue 1-2
Animals in captivity may show undesirable behaviour when they are not sufficiently challenged, making it essential for their well-being to provide daily enrichment to zoo animals.
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Effects of calcium availability on reproductive output of big brown bats

Source: Journal of Zoology, 2008, volume 274, issue 1
Reproduction is a period of high calcium demand in vertebrates; therefore, calcium deficiency can limit reproductive output in mammals. Nutritional analyses show that insects are a poor calcium source, ...
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Relationship between milk energy intake and growth rate in suckling mammalian young at peak lactation

Journal of Zoology, 2008, volume 274, issue 2
The milk energy intakes and growth rates of suckling young at peak lactation of 62 mammalian species and subspecies, all measured using either the weigh-suckle-weigh, the isotope dilution or the isotope transfer method, were evaluated.
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Sequence of food presentation influences intake of foods containing tannins and terpenes

Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 2008, vol 113, issue 1-3
Interactions among nutrients and secondary compounds in plants can influence the kinds and amounts of different forages herbivores ingest, but little is known about how the sequence of plant ingestion may influence these interactions.
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Nutritional content of savanna plant foods: implications for browser/grazer models of ungulate diversification

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol 53, nr 2, 2007
Models of herbivore diversification rely heavily on adaptations that reflect the nutritional quality of foods consumed. In particular, browsers and grazers are expected to show dichotomous adaptations to deal with high quality (concentrate) browse-based and ...
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Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination and hatching phenology in tuatara?

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, volume 275, nr 1648, 2008
How will climate change affect species' reproduction and subsequent survival? In many egg-laying reptiles, the sex of offspring is determined by the temperature experienced during a critical period of embryonic development (temperature-dependent sex determination, TSD).
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Feeding responses of the red fox to different wild rabbit densities: a regional approach

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol. 54, nr 1, 2008
We investigate the feeding responses of the red fox at a regional scale to different densities of European wild rabbit in central–southern Spain. Rabbit abundance indices were obtained in 86 localities during summer 2002.
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Mineral absorption in the black rhinoceros as compared with the domestic horse

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 91, issue 5-6, 2007
To test whether mineral recommendations for horses are likely to guarantee adequate mineral provision for black rhinoceroses, we investigated the apparent absorption (aA) of macro- and microminerals in eight black rhinoceroses...
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Effect of carbohydrate source on diet digestibility and postprandial glucose and insulin responses in cats

Source: Journal of Animal Science vol 86, nr 9, 2008
The effects of diets with different starch sources on the total tract apparent digestibility and glucose and insulin responses in cats were investigated. Six experimental diets consisting of 35% starch were extruded, ...
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The effect of domestic sheep on forage plants of wild reindeer

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol 54, nr 3, 2008
Domestic herbivores often compete with wildlife for limited resources, and on longer time-scales, grazing may also increase or decrease coverage of important food plants to wildlife affecting the threshold density ...
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Diseases shared between wildlife and livestock: a European perspective

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, volume 53, issue 4, 2007
Wildlife diseases are in fashion. This is creating an explosion of related knowledge. Despite this, the dynamics of both wildlife and diseases and the changes in livestock and wildlife management make it increasingly difficult to overview the current situation of wildlife diseases in Europe.
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Introducing reptiles into a captive collection: The role of the veterinarian

Source: The Veterinary Journal, volume 175, issue 1, 2008
The successful introduction of reptiles into a captive collection depends on providing optimal husbandry and veterinary attention. An important role of the veterinarian in this process is the prevention ...
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Cottonseed feeding delivers sufficient quantities of gossypol as a male deer contraceptive

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research, vol 54, nr 3, 2008
To define the quantitative and qualitative effects of gossypol (GP) on deer (Cervus elaphus) semen, the animals were fed cottonseed (CS). Adult stags each received 350 g of CS for 109 days.
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Effect of linseed cake supplementation on digestibility and faecal and haematological parameters in dogs

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 91, issue 7-8, 2007
The experiment was conducted with a 6 × 4 cyclic changeover design. Six adult Alaskan huskies were assigned to diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% linseed cake. A linear decrease in the ...
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Prediction of digestible energy content of extruded dog food by in vitro analyses

Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 91, issue 5-6, 2007
The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reproducible in vitro method for predicting the apparent energy digestibility of dry extruded dog foods. The proposed method is based on the two-step multienzymatic incubation assay ...
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Fearfulness in horses: A temperament trait stable across time and situations

Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 115, issue 3-4, 2008
The purpose of this study was to test the existence of a “fearfulness” trait in horses, by testing the stability across situations and over time of the responses to different fear-eliciting situations.
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Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink

Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 91, issue 11-12, 2007
To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), ...
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Cryptorchidism and sex ratio are associated in dogs and pigs

Journal of Animal Science vol 86, nr 10, 2008
The objective of this study was to investigate whether the occurrence of cryptorchidism in a litter is associated with the sex ratio in this litter. The analysis included for dog 1,339 litters of 4 different breeds, ...
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Hormonal and genetic control of behavioral integration in honey bee colonies

Source: Science 6 October 1989, Vol. 246. no. 4926, pp. 109 - 112
The ability of insect colonies to adjust the division of labor among workers in response to changing environmental and colony conditions, coupled with research showing ...
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Nutritional status influences socially regulated foraging ontogeny in honey bees

Source: Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 4641-4649 (2005)
In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein ...
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Basic data on food intake, nutrient digestibility and energy requirements of lorikeets

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 91, issue 5-6, 2007
Although knowledge of the nutrient requirements of pet birds has increased a lot over the last few years, basic data on food and water intake and the energy requirements of nectarivorous species, such as lorikeets, are scarce.
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Visitor effects on anxiety in two captive groups of western lowland gorillas

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 115, issue 3-4, 2008
There is growing interest in examining the effects that visitors have on the welfare of zoo primates. Most recently, the importance of evaluating the combined impacts of visitors and management practices on anxiety levels of these animals has been highlighted.
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Effects of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora of horses subjected to a sudden change in diet

Source: Journal of Animal Science vol 86, nr 2, 2008
Prebiotic compounds, such as short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS), have been shown to improve health, welfare, or both, in several species, but few studies have been conducted in horses, despite the sensitivity of their hindgut microflora.
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Reliability of assessment of dogs' behavioural responses by staff working at a welfare charity in the UK

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 115, issue 3-4, 2008
Behavioural problems in dogs are a major cause for their relinquishment and return to animal shelters and rehoming centres. It is important that the staff in these welfare centres can reliably assess the behavioural characteristics of the dogs so that they can be rehomed to the most appropriate environment and the owners can be made aware of what to expect.
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Tongue twisters: feeding enrichment to reduce oral stereotypy in giraffe

Source: Zoo Biology Volume 27, issue 3, 2008
Stereotypic behavior has been well-studied and documented in a variety of animals including primates, carnivores, and domesticated ungulates. However, very little information is known about stereotypic behavior of captive exotic ungulates.
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Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics are different among captive exotic felids fed a beef-based raw diet

Source: Zoo Biology, Volume 27, issue 2, 2008
Nutrient digestibility has not been well characterized in exotic felids. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate differences in nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics in five large exotic captive felid species, ...
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Quantification of enterobacteriaceae in faeces of captive black rhinoceros in relation to dietary tannin supplementation

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, volume 92, issue 1, 2008
Free-ranging browsing herbivores ingest a range of secondary plant compounds, such as tannins, with their natural diet. As many of these substances have been shown to have antibacterial properties, ...
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The effects of prey species on food conversion efficiency and growth of an insectivorous lizard

Zoo Biology volume 27, issue 3, 2008
Little is known about the effects of different prey species on lizard growth. A 6-week study was conducted to determine the relative effects of prey species on growth parameters of hatchling western fence lizards.
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Comparative digestion studies in wild suids at Rotterdam Zoo

Zoo Biology volume 27, issue 4, 2008
Among the artiodactyla, the suids are a group whose digestive physiology has hardly been investigated. The apparent digestibilities (aD) of macronutrients were measured in captive specimens of warthog, red river hog and Visayan warty pigs.
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Spelt and linseed oil as ingredients of compound feedstuffs for modern horse feeding

Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition volume 92, issue 3, 2008
Spelt is a covered cereal with large glumellas. In experiment 1, it has been compared in terms of chemical composition with barley, oat and maize. Spelt is characterized by rather low protein and ether extract (EE) contents.
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Fatty acid status in captive and free-ranging black rhinoceroses

The fatty acid (FA) patterns of plasma/serum triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and cholesteryl esters (CE) of captive and free-ranging black rhinoceroses were investigated. Free-ranging animals (n = 28) stemmed from four different regions.
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Nutritional goals of wild primates

Functional Ecology, Volume 23, issue 1, 2009
Primates meet their nutritional goals by prioritizing certain nutritional parameters when choosing the types and quantities of different foods. There are five major models applied in primate nutritional ecology, each of which proposes that diet selection ...
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Estimation of protein requirement for maintenance in adult parrots by determining inevitable N losses in excreta

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition volume 92, issues 3, 2008
Especially in older pet birds, an unnecessary overconsumption of protein - presumably occurring in human custody - should be avoided in view of a potential decrease in the excretory organs' (liver, kidney) efficiency.
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Behavioral monitoring in zoos and aquariums: a tool for guiding husbandry and directing research

Source: Zoo Biology volume 28, issue 1, 2009
Behavioral monitoring is the scientific collection of animal behavior data to understand normal patterns of behavior and changes in these patterns. This tool is underutilized in the zoo industry although it can be an effective indicator of ...
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Nutritional ecology of marine herbivorous fishes: ten years on

Functional Ecology, volume 23, issue 1, 2009
Marine herbivorous fishes are considered to be of critical importance in determining the biological structure of shallow reef environments, and by implication have key roles in carbon flux in reef ecosystems.
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The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition volume 92, issue 5, 2008
In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, ...
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Determining nitrogen requirements of hornbills

Zoo Biology, volume 27, issue 4, 2008
Over 2 months, seven feeding trials were conducted at St. Catherines Island, GA, to quantify protein intake and utilization in captive mature nonreproducing Aceros (n=3 spp.) and Buceros (n=2 spp.) Hornbills.
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Nutritional toxicology of mammals: regulated intake of plant secondary compounds

Functional Ecology, Vol 23 (1) 2009
Many mammalian herbivores continually face the possibility of being poisoned by the natural toxins in the plants they consume. A recent key discovery in this area is that mammalian herbivores are capable of regulating the ...
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Risk factors for separation-related distress and feed-related aggression in dogs: Additional findings from a survey of Australian dog owners

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 109, issue 2 - 4, 2008
The potential risk factors associated with the canine behavioural problems, separation-related distress (SRD) and feed-related aggression (FRA) were evaluated by a questionnaire, distributed through Dog's Life magazine.
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Captive health and husbandry of the Bradypodidae

Source: Zoo Biology, Volume 24, issue 6, 2005
Members of the Bradypodidae (three-toed sloths) are rarely seen in the zoological setting. To date, minimal published accounts of the medicine and husbandry needs of this family have been documented.
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Influence of different dietary calcium levels on the digestibility of Ca, Mg and P in Hermann's tortoises

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol 91, issue 11-12, 2007
Calcium and phosphorus are very important minerals in reptile nutrition, but many diets are still not balanced. To achieve optimal growth, including a healthy skeleton and a strong shell, a well-balanced supply with these minerals is prerequisite.
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The effects of personality of keepers and tigers on their behaviour in an interactive zoo exhibit

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 106, issue 4, 2007
Personalities can be determined for individual animals from their distinctive patterns of behaviour, providing that they are consistent across time and situations. Although there have been no previous studies of the role of personality in ...
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Digesta passage rates in the Florida manatee

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 26, issue 6, 2007
The Florida manatee is an herbivorous marine mammal found within coastal areas throughout the state of Florida, which feeds on both fresh and salt water sea grasses.
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Predator odour per se does not frighten domestic horses

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 112, issue 1 - 2, 2008
Horses frequently react nervously when passing animal production farms and other places with distinctive smells, leading riders to believe that horses are innately frightened by certain odours.
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Evidence that zoo visitors influence HPA activity in spider monkeys

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 90, issue 2, 2005
There has been conflicting evidence about the impact of visitors on zoo animals. The present study was designed to increase understanding of visitor effect by assessing the relationship between visitor numbers and activity ...
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Effect of captivity and mineral supplementation on body composition and mineral status of mustached bats

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol 91, issue 5-6, 2007
We investigated the whole-body crude nutrient (fat, protein, ash) and mineral (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K) composition of mustached bats of three different groups: animals from the wild (n = 6), and animals from captivity on an ...
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Sex of the foetus determines the time of weaning of the previous offspring of captive plains zebra

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 105, issue 1 - 3, 2007
We examined if captive plains zebra mares change the timing of weaning according to the sex of the suckling foal and of the new impending foetus. We observed 19 captive plains zebra foals, ...
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Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon growth

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol 92, issue 3, 2008
The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots. Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four …
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Digestion studies in captive Hippopotamidae: a group of large ungulates with an unusually low metabolic rate

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol 90, issue 7-8, 2006
Intake and digestibility studies were performed in four common and four pygmy hippos from two zoological institutions, using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker for the quantification of faecal output.
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A note on the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of zoo-housed gorillas

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 100, issue 3 - 4, 2007
Auditory stimulation has long been employed as a form of therapy for humans and animals housed in institutions. Its effect on one of our closest-living relatives, the gorilla, however, is largely unknown.
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Differences in fecal particle size between free-ranging and captive individuals of two browser species

Zoo Biology, vol 27, issue 1, 2008
Data from captive animals indicated that browsing ruminants have larger fecal particles - indicative of lesser chewing efficiency - than grazers. To answer whether this reflects fundamental differences between the animal groups, ...
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Tradeoffs between escape behavior and foraging opportunity by the Balearic lizard

Source: Herpetologica, vol 60, issue 3, 2004
Optimal escape theory predicts that prey permit closer approach by predators when fleeing is more costly, but does not predict other aspects of escape such as distance fled or the likelihood of returning to the initial site in the presence or absence of a resource such as food.
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Relationships among nutrition and reproduction and relevance for wild animals

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 23, issue 6, 2004
This review discusses aspects of feeding ecology, nutrition, and dietary husbandry that are particularly relevant to reproductive success in wild animals. Emphasis has been placed on recently published literature.
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Nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics are different among captive exotic felids fed a beef-based raw diet

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 27, issue 2, 2008
Nutrient digestibility has not been well characterized in exotic felids. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate differences in nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics in five large exotic captive felid species, ...
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A preliminary model of human–animal relationships in the zoo

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 109, issue 2 - 4, 2008
The concept of the human-animal relationship (HAR) is widely used in farm animal research to describe the outcome of the different qualities and quantities of interaction between stockpersons and the animals in their care.
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High-ranking mares of captive plains zebra have greater reproductive success than low-ranking mares

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol 99, issue 3 - 4, 2006
Plains zebra live in harems that include one to six adult mares. Between these mares is a strong order of social hierarchy. The social rank of an equid mare is typically correlated with her age.
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Fiber digestibility in juvenile Galapagos tortoises and implications for the development of captive animals

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 24, issue 2, 2005
Digestive strategies have been recognized to be a key factor for healthy growth in juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises. The aim of present study was to investigate digestive coefficients with special regard to fiber fractions.
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Ontogenetic variation in digestion by a herbivorous lizard

Source: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, vol 77, issue 3, 2004
The hypothesis was tested that an animal with an ontogenetic diet shift must have different digestive efficiencies for foods that correspond to its diet shift, so that nutrient and energy extraction are maximized.
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Adjusting prey handling times and methods affects profitability in the broad-headed skink

Source: Herpetologica, vol 62, issue 4, 2006
Time spent pursuing, capturing, and subduing prey, and time spent preparing and swallowing it all affect profitability of a prey item (net energy gain/handling time). In the diet selection model of classical optimal foraging theory, ...
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Energy supply of the okapi in captivity: fermentation characteristics of feedstuffs

Source: Zoo biology, vol 25, issue 4, 2006
A variety of feeds are used in the nutrition of browsing ruminants. During digestion trials on okapis, feedstuffs of different facilities were sampled and the Hohenheim gas test was used as in vitro fermentation method to quantify their fermentative behavior.
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Alternative foraging tactics of juvenile Gopher tortoises examined using correlated random walk models

Source: Herpetologica, vol 63, issue 4, 2007
Most animals forage under the risk of predation. An animal may balance the benefits gained from obtaining adequate nutritious forage with the risk of falling prey to a predator by employing alternative, adaptive foraging tactics.
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Juvenile mortality in captive lesser kudu at Basle Zoo and its relation to nutrition and husbandry

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol 39, issue 1, 2008
Since 1956, when the Basle Zoo (Switzerland) initiated the breeding of lesser kudu, 43% of the lesser kudu juveniles died before reaching an age of 6 mo. In this study, the objective was to obtain the pathological findings, nutritional history, ...
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Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences, Vol 274, issue 1611, 2007
Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood.
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Assessment of body condition in Asian elephants

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 25, Issue 3, 2006
A method of assessing body condition of Asian elephants is presented. The method uses visual assessment to assign numerical scores to six different regions of the body, which are totaled to give a numerical index.
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Preferences among four species of local browse offered to Colobus monkeys

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 24, issue 3, 2004
The objective of this study was to document the browse preferences of five adult Colobus monkeys (one male and four females, fed a nutritionally sound diet) among four local and readily available temperate browse types at the Central Park Zoo.
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Body weight as an effective tool for determination of onset of puberty in captive female Nile hippopotami

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 25, Issue 1, 2005
Profiles of fecal progestogens and body weight from the early juvenile to the peri-pubertal period are presented for eight captive female Nile hippopotami housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom in Florida.
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Guidelines for creating a food safety HACCP program in zoos or aquaria

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 25, Issue 2, 2005
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) monitoring system has been used traditionally to increase quality control in human food production operations and there is pressure to implement it at the producer and purchaser levels of the food chain.
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Diet and travel costs for Spider Monkeys in a nonseasonal, hyperdiverse environment

Source: International Journal of Primatology, vol 27, nr 2, 2006
The effects of a nonseasonal environment with a high diversity of plant species in a community of white-bellied spider monkeys in the Yasuní National Park, Ecuador were studied.
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Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants

Source: Archives of Animal Nutrition, Vol 59, Issue 1, 2005
Plant breeders have made and will continue to make important contributions toward meeting the need for more and better feed and food. The use of new techniques to modify the genetic makeup of plants to improve ...
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Variation in digestive efficiency of captive North American river otters on various diets

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 26, issue 1, 2006
Energy content, proximate nutrient values, passage rate, and digestive efficiency associated with various diet types and factors affecting these parameters have not been quantified for the North American river otter.
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Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 25, Issue 1, 2005
Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a non-migratory flock in Florida.
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Gastro-Intestinal transit time in South American deer

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 25, Issue 1, 2005
The study of diet and physiological peculiarities of the digestive system of neotropical deer is not well known and the literature shows inconsistencies. To better understand the digestive system of these mammals ...
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How does the zoo environment affect the behaviour of captive primates?

Source: Applied Animal Behaviour Science , Volume 90 , Issue 2 , 2003
It is important for us to be able to understand the behaviour of primates in zoos for at least three reasons: firstly as a means towards ensuring their welfare, secondly to use that understanding to ensure a positive zoo experience for zoo visitors, ...
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Digestion coefficients achieved by the black rhinoceros, a large browsing hindgut fermenter

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90 (7-8) , 2006
In contrast to the grazing white and Indian rhinoceros, the black rhinoceros is an exclusive browser. Due to the particular fermentation characteristics of browse, one would expect browsers to ...
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Mortality of captive giraffe associated with serious fat atrophy

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol 36, issue 2, 2005
Five giraffe died peracutely within an 8-yr period. The giraffe were maintained in an outside enclosure during the day and moved under shelter at night. All the deaths occurred in winter.
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Influence of environmental humidity and dietary protein on pyramidal growth of carapaces in African spurred tortoises

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87 (1-2) , 2003
The carapaces of captive-raised tortoises (terrestrial chelonians of the zoological family Testudinidae, often develop pyramidal-shaped osseous growth centrally within the horny plates.
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Foraging, food choice, and food processing by ripe-fruit specialists

Source: International Journal of Primatology, vol 26, nr 5, 2005
Studies of interspecific competition and niche separation have formed some of the seminal works of ecology. An 18 month study was conducted, comparing the feeding ecologies of two sympatric, closely-related ripe-fruit specialists.
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Nutritional diseases of South American camelids

Source: Small Ruminant Research , Volume 61 , Issue 2 - 3 , 2003
Literature describing nutritional or nutrition-related diseases of llamas and alpacas was reviewed. Case reports of copper toxicity, polioencephalomalacia, plant poisonings and ...
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Energy supply of the okapi in captivity: intake and digestion trials

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 25, issue 4, 2006
In the nutrition of browsing ruminants in captivity, adequate nutrient digestibility and energy content of diet is debated. Problems related to energy-provision and low forage intake have been reported for the okapi and other browsers like the giraffe, particularly during winter.
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Studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive Indian rhinoceros

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol 89, issue 3-6, 2005
Intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies were performed in 11 Indian rhinoceroses from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output.
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Protein requirements of three species of parrots with distinct dietary specializations

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 22, issue 2, 2003
Dietary protein deficiency is considered a major obstacle in the evolution of highly specialized nectarivorous and frugivorous birds. Proposed physiological mechanisms that enable such specialists to subsist on low-protein diets....
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The use of n-alkanes as markers for the determination of digestive strategies of captive giraffes

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 17, issue 4, 1998
Selected aspects of digestion in captive giraffes were investigated in two trials with a type of marker that is new for digestive studies in non-domestic species. N-Alkanes were used as internal and external markers.
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Advancing zoo animal nutrition through global synergy

Source: International Zoo Yearbook 39 (1) , 2005
Global communication and dissemination of information are two fundamental factors that are necessary to advance zoo animal nutrition. To achieve global synergy for nutrition, ....
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Nutrition of captive lowland anoa: a study on ingesta passage, intake, digestibility, and a diet survey

Source: Zoo Biology, vol 24, issue 2, 2005
Members of the Bovini genus are classified as grazers. Smaller species of ruminants are not expected to be able to digest particularly fibrous diets and are more often classified as intermediate feeders or browsers.
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Daily and seasonal rhythms in selected body temperatures in the Australian lizard

Source: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 71(3): 1998
This study examined daily and seasonal activity and thermoregulatory behaviour of the sleepy lizard, Tiliqua rugosa, a large, diurnally active temperate dwelling Australian lizard, in the field and laboratory.
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Comparing the behaviour of zoo housed animals with wild conspecifics as a welfare indicator

Source: Animal Welfare, Volume 5, Number 2, 1996
To assess the validity of using wild behavioural data as a welfare indicator for zoo animals, the time budgets of 19 captive giraffe from four zoos were compared with the time budgets of wild giraffe from Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.
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Nutritional and Health Status of Woolly Monkeys

Source: International Journal of Primatology (online), 2008
Woolly monkeys are threatened species in the wild and in captivity. Numerous zoological institutions have historically kept these monkeys, but only a few of them have succeeded in breeding populations.
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Activities and agonistic behavior of male Eastern grey kangaroos in captivity and the wild

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 19, issue 6, 2000
The behavior of free-ranging and captive Eastern grey kangaroos, was observed by the same observers, with similar methods and under similar vegetational/climatic conditions in a zoo and in the wild.
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Husbandry, overwinter care, and reproduction of captive striped skunks

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 24, issue 1, 2005
The striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) is the focus of research interest for a variety of reasons, including its roles as a rabies reservoir, urban pest, predator of bird eggs, and parasite host.
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Studies on digestive physiology and feed digestibilities in captive Indian rhinoceros

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89 (3-6), 2005
We performed intake, digestibility and ingesta passage studies in 11 Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) from four zoological institutions, using total faecal collection for the quantification of faecal output.
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Visitor behavior in the reptile house

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 7, issue 4, 1988
Visitor behavior was evaluated in the National Zoo's reptile house. Nearly 600 visitors were tracked; time spent in the house and time spent looking at exhibits were noted. These parameters were investigated by sex, age, and type of visitor grouping.
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Surrogacy program for Victorian brush-tailed rock wallaby

Source: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol 37, issue 1, 2006
A surrogacy program to increase the reproductive rate of the critically endangered Victorian brush-tailed rock wallaby, initially developed in semicaptive conditions, was established in close captivity at Adelaide Zoological Gardens in 1998.
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Feed selection and digestibility by captive giraffe

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 4, issue 1, 1985
A digestion trial with subsequent examination of feed selection was conducted using two captive giraffe fed four feedstuffs. Apparent digestibility coefficients were relatively high, indicating that the animals were efficiently utilizing the feedstuffs.
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Growth and bone mineralization of the iguanid lizard in captivity

Source: Zoo Biology, Vol 10, issue 5, 1991
The insectivorous, heliophilic iguanid lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, was used in this study. Eight groups of field-collected juveniles were subjected to different doses of ultraviolet-B radiation or were fed ....
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Effect of soybean oil on apparent digestibility of fibre in horses

Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology 138 (2007)
An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses.
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Grooming, kinship, and co-feeding in captive spider monkeys

Source: Zoo Biology, Volume 20, Issue 4, 2001
Allo-grooming is perhaps the most powerful affiliative behavior observed in non-human primates. However, the functional significance of grooming in New World monkeys has not yet been fully understood.
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Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2007
Woolly monkeys are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions.
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Predator-prey coevolution in nocturnal rock-dwelling reptiles

Source: Animal Behaviour, Volume 55, Issue 5, 1998
We investigated the importance of chemical cues for predator detection by the nocturnal, rock-dwelling velvet gecko and how the lizards' responses to snake odour may have exerted selection on the foraging behaviours of a nocturnal elapid snake.
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High fat intake and fiber digestibility in ponies

Source: Animal Feed Science and Technology 133 (2007) 298–308
Inclusion of extra fat in the diet of horses, at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of nonstructural carbohydrates, has been shown to decrease the apparent digestibility of the various dietary fiber fractions, but the mechanism was unknown.
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Water consumption and watering behavior of Przewalski horses

Source: Zoo Biol 17:181-192, 1998
Water consumption by 12 female Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) was automatically measured in a semireserve for 17 months. Average daily consumption on a yearly basis was between 2.4 and 8.3 liters, ...
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The use of internal markers to determine metabolizable energy and digestibility of diets in the African Grey parrot

Source: Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift, 2004 Vol. 73, No. 3, 176-181
Both acid-insoluble ash and acid-detergent lignin were evaluated as internal markers in digestibility studies with African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). The markers were tested in a seed mixture, sunflower seed and a pelleted parrot diet.
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Apparent digestibility of macro-nutrients in captive polar bears

Source: Zool. Garten N.F. 73 (2003) 2, S 111-115
The diet of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) under captive conditions differs from that in the wild. The wild polar bear feeds itself predominantly on the ringed seal (Phoca hispida), but they may also eat birds, grasses, moss and berries.
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Optimal ranging strategy for ring-tailed lemurs

Source: International Journal of Primatology, vol 24, nr 5, 2003
In order to determine whether ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) adapt their ranging and select an optimal diet at a time of food shortage, we observed two adjacent troops in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar for over 250 h.
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Offspring food allocation in meerkat family groups

Source: Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 5: 590-599
In cooperatively breeding species, helpers and parents commonly face two decisions when they find a food item: first, whether to feed the item to a young group member or to eat it themselves; and second, which offspring to feed.
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Predicting feed intake during exposure to pathogens

Source: J. Anim. Sci. 2006, 84
A general model is proposed for predicting the effects of subclinical pathogen challenges of different doses and virulence on the relative feed intake of growing animals. The proposed model may be integrated with other models of growth to predict animal performance during exposure to pathogens.
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Intestinal tract length of elephants

Source: European Journal of Wildlife Research
The digestive tract of elephants is surprisingly short compared to other herbivorous mammals. However, measurements relating the length of the intestine to the body mass of the respective individual are rare. In this study, we report such data for an African elephant and an Asian elephant.
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Zoonoses in petting zoos

Source: Schweizer Archiv Tierheilkunde
In thirty Swiss petting zoos a study was performed with the objective to determine the prevalence of zoonotic agents. Also the hygiene measures implemented to reduce the risk of human infection were described. Fecal samples from different animal species were collected from the floor of pens to determine the prevalence of ...
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Lactobacilli in food and feed

Marion Bernardeau, Micheline Guguen, Jean Paul Vernoux (2006) FEMS Microbiology Reviews 30 (4), 487–513
Beneficial lactobacilli in food and feed: long-term use, biodiversity and proposals for specific and realistic safety assessments

Lactobacilli have played a crucial role in the production of fermented products for millennia. Their probiotic effects have recently been studied and used in new products.
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Digestion coefficients in the black rhinoceros

Digestion coefficients in the black rhinoceros

Source: M. Clauss, J. C. Castell, E. Kienzle, E. S. Dierenfeld, E. J. Flach, O. Behlert, S. Ortmann, W. J. Streich, J. Hummel, J.-M. Hatt (2006), Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90 (7-8), 325–334
Digestion coefficients achieved by the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), a large browsing hindgut fermenter

In contrast to the grazing white (C. simum) and Indian (R. unicornis) rhinoceros, the black rhinoceros (D. bicornis) is an exclusive browser.
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The many uses of non-invasive faecal steroid monitoring in zoo and wildlife species

Source: F. Schwarzenberger (2007), International Zoo Yearbook 41 (1), 52–74
During the past two decades, techniques for faecal steroid analysis have been developed and have been used for research with mammalian, bird and, to a lesser extent, reptile, amphibian and fish species.
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Predation of birds at feeders in winter

Predation of birds at feeders in winter

Source: Dunn, EH; Tessaglia, DL Journal of Field Ornithology Vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 8-16, 1994
In this article the risk of birds being predated while in the neighborhood of a bird feeder is described.
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Factors affecting diet selection by sheep

Factors affecting diet selection by sheep

Source: PA Kenney and JL Black, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 35(4) 551 – 563, 1984
In three experiments the factors affecting diet selection by sheep were tested. The potential intake rate of several forages was measured. Length of particles had an effect on intake rate.
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Effect of petting a dog on immune system function

Effect of petting a dog on immune system function

Charnetski CJ, Riggers S, Brennan FX. Psychol Rep. 2004 Dec;95(3 Pt 2):1087-91.
The present study assessed the effect of petting a dog on secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. 55 College students were randomly assigned to either an experimental group or one of two control groups. Group 1 (n= 19) petted a live dog; Group 2 (n = 17) petted a stuffed dog, while Group 3 (n = 19) simply sat comfortably on a couch.
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Studies on feed digestibilities in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

M. Clauss, W. Loehlein, E. Kienzle, H. Wiesner (2003) Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87 (3-4), 160–173
In order to test the suitability of the horse as a nutritional model for elephants, digestibility studies were performed with six captive Asian elephants on six different dietary regimes, using the double marker method with acid detergent lignin as an internal and chromium oxide as an external digestibility marker.
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Reproduction and dietary habits of the African thread snake Leptotyphlops scutifrons

Jonathan K. Webb, Richard Shine, William R. Branch and Peter S. Harlow, Journal of Zoology (2000), 250: 321-327 Cambridge University Press
Information on the biology of 'primitive' blind snakes can help clarify the origin of ecological traits typical of 'higher' snakes. 360 museum specimens are examined and dissected to obtain information on morphology, dietary habits, and reproduction of two subspecies of an African thread snake, Leptotyphlops s. scutifrons and L. s. conjunctus.
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Energy and Fibre Intake in a Group of Captive Giraffe <i>(Giraffa camelopardalis)</i>

Energy and Fibre Intake in a Group of Captive Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Hatt, J.-M.; Schaub, D.; Wanner, M.; Wettstein, H.-R.; Flach, E. J.; Tack, C.; Hässig, M.; Ortmann, S.; Hummel, J.; Clauss, M., Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series A, Volume 52, Number 10, December 2005 ,Blackwell Publishing
We investigated the effect of diet on intake of energy and fibre in a group of three captive adult giraffe by weighing offered diet items and leftovers for 7 days after an adaptation period of 7 days.
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Ultraviolet photosensitivity and feeding in larval and juvenile coral reef fishes

S. Job, and D.R. Bellwood, Marine Biology, Volume 151, Number 2
The ability of young coral reef fishes to feed using solely ultraviolet-A (UV-A) radiation during ontogeny was examined using natural prey in experimental tanks. Larvae and juveniles of three coral reef fish species (Pomacentrus amboinensis, Premnas biaculeatus and Apogon compressus) ...
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Diet and feeding behaviour of the forest elephant in the Santchou Reserve, Cameroon

Diet and feeding behaviour of the forest elephant in the Santchou Reserve, Cameroon

Source:Tchamba, MN; Seme, PM, African journal of ecology. Nairobi Vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 165-171. 1993
This study reports the diet and feeding behaviour of forest elephants in Western Cameroon.
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Nesting behavior of the lilac-crowned parrot

Source: Katherine Renton's and Alejandro Salinas-Melgoza; Wilson Bull., 11 l(4), 1999, pp. 488-493
Nesting behavior of the Lilac-crowned Parrot (Amazona finschi) was observed over a three year period at 24 nests in the tropical dry forest of the Chamela-Cuixmala Biosphere Reserve, western Mexico.
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The Relationship between Popularity and Body Size in Zoo Animals

The Relationship between Popularity and Body Size in Zoo Animals

Source: Paul I. Ward, Nicole Mosberger, Claudia Kistler, Oliver Fischer (1998) Conservation Biolog, Volume 12 Issue 6 Page 1408-1411
Larger animals are more expensive to maintain in zoos than are smaller animals, and they breed at slower rates. Consequently, zoos could potentially contribute more to conservation efforts by ...
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Seasonal changes in digestibility, passage rate and rumen fermentation of alfalfa hay in sika deer <i>(Cervus nippon)</i> under restricted feeding

Seasonal changes in digestibility, passage rate and rumen fermentation of alfalfa hay in sika deer (Cervus nippon) under restricted feeding

Bron: S. Asano, S. Ikeda, Y. Kurokawa, et al, Animal Science Journal 78 (1), 28–33, 2007
To investigate seasonal variations in the digestive functions of sika deer, five female sika deer were provided with an amount of alfalfa hay cubes equivalent to voluntary food intake during winter.
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Female Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during Winter

Female Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) during Winter

Source: P.S. Barboza and K.L. Parker, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, volume 79 (2006), pages 628–644
They studied bred and unbred female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) during 12 wk of winter when ambient temperatures were low and nitrogen (N) demand for fetal growth is highest in pregnant females.
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Locomotion and foraging strategy in foot-propelled and wing-propelled shallow-diving seabirds

Locomotion and foraging strategy in foot-propelled and wing-propelled shallow-diving seabirds

Source: A. Kato et al, Marine ecology. Progress series, 2006, vol. 308, pp. 293-301
Buoyancy is a major determinant of locomotory cost in diving animals. As seabirds have a large amount of air in their feathers and respiratory system, they should work hard against buoyancy to descend in the water column.
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Body mass and composition responses to short-term low energy intake are seasonally dependent in Steller sea lions

Body mass and composition responses to short-term low energy intake are seasonally dependent in Steller sea lions

Source: S. Kumagai, D.A. S. Rosen and A.W. Trites, Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, Volume 176, Number 6, 2006
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Effect of male number and clan cohesion on feeding success in hamadryas baboons

Effect of male number and clan cohesion on feeding success in hamadryas baboons

Source: F. Colmenares, M.M. Esteban , F. Zaragoza, American Journal of Primatology , Volume 68, Issue 1, 2005
In the multilevel societies of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), adult males can be attached to single one-male units (OMUs) or to clans containing several such OMUs.
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Changes in Llama Milk Composition During Lactation

Changes in Llama Milk Composition During Lactation

Source: A. Riek and M. Gerken, 2006, J. Dairy Sci. 89:3484-3493
Milk samples were collected weekly from 10 llamas (Lama glama) during the first 27 week after parturition under controlled stable conditions.
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Diet influences life span in parrots (Psittaciformes)

Diet influences life span in parrots (Psittaciformes)

Source: Jason Munshi-South, Gerald S. Wilkinson, 2006, The Auk pp. 108–118
Evolutionary hypotheses regarding longevity predict that life span should increase as extrinsic mortality rates decrease.
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Dietary constraints upon reproduction in an obligate pollen- and nectar-feeding marsupial

Dietary constraints upon reproduction in an obligate pollen- and nectar-feeding marsupial

Source: R. D. Wooller, K. C. Richardson and G. O. Bradley, Journal of Zoology (1999), 248: 279-287
The tiny honey possum, Tarsipes rostratus, is the only marsupial that feeds solely upon nectar and pollen. Its daily energy expenditure is reduced by occasional short-term deep torpor but its overall nitrogen needs appear to be what would be predicted for its size (7–12 g).
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Characterisation and quantification of the microbial populations of the rumen

Characterisation and quantification of the microbial populations of the rumen

Source: J.L. Firkins and Z. Yu, The Ohio State University, Department of Animal Sciences
Already more than 3000 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences of rumen origin have been archived in public databases. Molecular-based approaches have been adapted more recently to protozoa and archaea, which also appear to be more diverse than once thought.
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Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

Behavioral profiles of the captive juvenile whooping crane as an indicator of post-release survival

Source: M.D. Kreger, et al, Zoo Biology, 0:1-14, 2005
Predation by bobcats (Lynx rufus) is the major cause of mortality in captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) released into the wild to establish a nonmigratory flock in Florida.
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Energy supply of the okapi in captivity

Energy supply of the okapi in captivity

Source: J. Hummel, et al, Zoo Biology, 0:1-14, 2006
Intake and digestion trials
Problems related to energy-provision and low forage intake have been reported for the okapi and other browsers like the giraffe, particularly during winter.
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Husbandry and breeding of the Dibbler

Husbandry and breeding of the Dibbler

Source: C. Lambert, H. Mills, International Zoo Yearbook, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2006
Husbandry and breeding of the Dibbler Parantechinus apicalis at Perth Zoo
The Dibbler Parantechinus apicalis is a small, carnivorous marsupial. Between 1996 and 1998 a recovery plan was initiated because the species is Endangered in its natural range.
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Nutritional ecology of elephants

Nutritional ecology of elephants

Source: K.D. Rode, Journal of Tropical Ecology, 2006, 22: 441-449
and its relationship with crop-raiding behaviour
This study investigated the nutritional ecology of forest elephants in Kibale National Park, Uganda relative to crop-raiding behaviour, and examined nutritional differences between crops and food consumed by wild elephants.
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Digestibility and roughage intake in a group of captive giraffes

Digestibility and roughage intake in a group of captive giraffes

Source: S. Schmucker, A. Hörhager, L. Kolter, Zoologischer Garten Köln, Germany
Adequate feeding and nutrition of giraffes is a constant topic of debate and discussion in zoo community.
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Using mortality and reproduction data to evaluate captive penguin nutrition

Using mortality and reproduction data to evaluate captive penguin nutrition

Source: R. Pizzi, M. Gibbons, A.M. Wood, G. Mackenzie, M.C. Garcia-Rueda, Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Edinburgh Zoo, UK
While evaluating diets fed to penguins in captivity with that consumed by wild birds would be ideal, there is a paucity of much relevant knowledge.
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Lipid storage in marine zooplankton

Lipid storage in marine zooplankton

Source: Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 307, 2006, R.F. Lee, W. Hagen, G. Kattner
Zooplankton storage lipids play an important role during reproduction, food scarcity, ontogeny and diapause, as shown by studies in various oceanic regions.
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Effects of artificial foods on the blood chemistry of the Australian magpie

Effects of artificial foods on the blood chemistry of the Australian magpie

Source: Austral Ecology, Volume 31, 2006, G. Ishigame, G. S. Baxter and A. T. Lisle
Bird feeding on residential property is a popular activity throughout Western countries.
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Nutritional management of Great grey shrikes

Nutritional management of Great grey shrikes

Source: H. Marqués, A. Porté, A. Vives, N. Torrent and D. Sánchez, Conzoolting Wildlife Management, Associació Trenca, Centre de Fauna de Vallcalent, Lleida, Spain, 2005
The situation of the Lesser grey shrike (Lanius minor) in the Iberian Peninsula during the last few years suggests that conservation strategies should be taken.
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Composition and Nutritional Characteristics of Fungi Consumed by Callimico goeldii in Pando, Bolivia

Composition and Nutritional Characteristics of Fungi Consumed by Callimico goeldii in Pando, Bolivia

Source: International Journal of Primatology, Volume 27, 323 – 346, Number 1, 2006
Though ≥22 species of Primates consume fungi, most do so at low rates, comprising <5% of their feeding time.
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Assessment of body condition in Asian elephants

Assessment of body condition in Asian elephants

Source: Zoo Biol 25:187-200, 2006, C. Wemmer, V. Krishnamurthy, S. Shrestha, L.A. Hayek, Myo Thant, K.A. Nanjappa
A method of assessing body condition of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) is presented. The method uses visual assessment to assign numerical scores to six different regions of the body.
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Factors affecting herbivory

Factors affecting herbivory

Source: Braz. arch. biol. technol. vol.49 no.3 Curitiba May 2006
Factors affecting herbivory of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the eggplant (Solanum melongena)
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Total Plasma Protein and Renesting by Greater Sage-Grouse

Total Plasma Protein and Renesting by Greater Sage-Grouse

Source: Journal of Wildlife Management, Article: pp. 472–478 M.A. Gregg, M.R. Dunbar, J.A. Crawford, M.D. Pope
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) population declines have been attributed to reduced productivity. Although renesting by sage-grouse may contribute significantly to...
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How a mega-grazer copes with the dry season

How a mega-grazer copes with the dry season

Source: Functional Ecology (2006) 20, 376 –384 A.M. Shrader, N. Owen-Smith and J.O. Ogutu
Few studies have investigated how free-ranging wild herbivores adjust their food intake rate and nutrient gains during the dry season. Our study focused on...
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Localised defecation sites:

Localised defecation sites:

Source: A. Apio, M. Plath and T. Wronski Journal of Ethology, Volume 24, Number 1, 2006
A tactic to avoid re-infection by gastro-intestinal tract parasites in bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus?
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Forage fibre digestion

Forage fibre digestion

Source: A.J. Munn and T.J. Dawson, Journal of Experimental Biology 209, 1535-1547 (2006)
Rates of feed passage and gut fill in juvenile and adult red kangaroos Macropus rufus Desmarest: why body size matters.
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The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities

The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities

Source: I.R. Rowland, A.K. Mallett, A. Wise, Crit Rev Toxicol. 1985;16(1):31-103
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Recent changes in body weight and wing length among passerine birds

Recent changes in body weight and wing length among passerine birds

Source: Y.Yom-Tov, S. Yom-Tov, J. Wright, C.J.R. Thorne and R. Du Feu, Oikos Volume 112 Page 91, 2006
Would global warming cause recent decreases in body weight and increases in wing length in 14 species of passerine birds at two localities in England?
Rainfall did explain the unusual increase in blackbird body weight, possibly as a result of improving food availability.
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Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano

Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano

Source: D.B. Fenolio, G.O. Graening, B.A. Collier, J.F. Stout, Proc.- R. Soc. Lond., Biol. Sci., 2006, vol. 273, no1585, pp. 439-443
During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano.
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The role of taste in food selection by African apes

The role of taste in food selection by African apes

Source: M.J. Remis, Primates, Volume 47, Number 1, January 2006, Pages: 56- 4
Ripe fruit eating shapes the behavior of most of the apes.
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Gut length and mass in herbivorous and carnivorous prickleback fishes

Gut length and mass in herbivorous and carnivorous prickleback fishes

Source: D.P. German and M.H. Horn, Marine Biology, Volume 148, Number 5, 2006
Relative gut length, Zihler's index, and relative gut mass were measured in four species of prickleback fishes and the effects of ontogeny, diet, and phylogeny on these gut dimensions were determined.
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Seasonal, sexual and anatomical variability in the adipose tissue of polar bears

Seasonal, sexual and anatomical variability in the adipose tissue of polar bears

Source: G.W. Thiemann, S.J. Iverson & I. Stirling, Journal of Zoology, volume 269, 2006
In summer, the sea ice of Hudson Bay melts completely and the entire polar bear population is forced to fast on land for ca. 4 months.
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Ontogenetic Diet Shifts and Digestive Constraints in the Omnivorous Freshwater Turtle

Ontogenetic Diet Shifts and Digestive Constraints in the Omnivorous Freshwater Turtle

Source: S.S. Bouchard and K.A. Bjorndal, Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, volume 79 (2006), p. 150–158
Many reptiles undergo an ontogenetic diet shift from carnivory to herbivory.
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Carbohydrate, fat, and protein composition of whole produce

Source: D.A. Schmidt, M.S. Kerley, J.H. Porter, J.L. Dempsey, Zoo Biology Volume 24, Issue 4, P. 359-373
Previously reported values for produce items often reflect only the human edible portion although animals generally eat the entire item.
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Seed Swallowing in Tamarins

Seed Swallowing in Tamarins

Source: P. A. Garber and U. Kitron, International Journal of Primatology, Volume 18, Number 4, 1997
Nonhuman primates represent a major component of the frugivore biomass in several rain-forest communities.
Although there is considerable evidence that prosimians, monkeys, and apes serve as dispersal agents for many tropical trees,
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Implantation and development of the gut flora in the newborn animal

Implantation and development of the gut flora in the newborn animal

Source: R. Ducluzeau, Ann Rech Vet. 1983;14(4):354-9
The newborn mammal, germfree in the mother's uterus, steps in complex microbial environment as soon as born. Bacterial development in the digestive cavities of the newborn animal, from the environmental bacteria, occurs very quickly.
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Importance of the wasting syndrome complex in captive moose (Alces alces)

Importance of the wasting syndrome complex in captive moose (Alces alces)

Source: Marcus Clauss, Ellen Kienzle and Henning Wiesner, Zoo Biology, 2002, Volume 21, Issue 5, Pages 499 – 506
We conducted a survey on the causes of moose (Alces alces) deaths at 19 European moose facilities.
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Three–way interactions between Acacia, large mammalian herbivores and bruchid beetles

Three–way interactions between Acacia, large mammalian herbivores and bruchid beetles

Source: K. Or and D. Ward, African Journal of Ecology Volume 41 Issue 3, Page 257, 2003
Large mammalian herbivores are both predators and dispersers of Acacia seeds.
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Gastro-Intestinal transit time in South American deer

Gastro-Intestinal transit time in South American deer

Source: L. Domingues de Oliveira, J.M. Barbanti Duarte, Zoo Biology Volume 25, Issue 1, Pages 47 - 57
The study of diet and physiological peculiarities of the digestive system of neotropical deer is not well known and the literature shows inconsistencies.
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Copper Resistance of Tilapia Larvae

Copper Resistance of Tilapia Larvae

Source: Su-Mei Wu, Am-Ni Deng, Yi-Ying Chou, and Leang-Shin Wu, Zoological Studies 44(3): 373-381 (2005)
In this study, they attempted to evaluate the effects of exogenous steroids on copper resistance and the relationship among steroids, Na+/K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ ATPase), and ionic homeostasis after challenge with copper toxicity in tilapia larvae (Oreochromis mossambicus).
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De optimalisatie van de voeding in Zodiac Zoos

De optimalisatie van de voeding in Zodiac Zoos

Drs. ing. Esmeralda Dols, Zodiac Zoos, Nederland
Zodiac Zoos wil de kwaliteit binnen de organisatie optimaliseren. Voeding is een van de aspecten die geprofessionaliseerd moet worden.
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Locomotion, Posture, and Feeding Behavior of Kinkajous, Coatis, and Raccoons

Locomotion, Posture, and Feeding Behavior of Kinkajous, Coatis, and Raccoons

Source: D. McClearn, Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 73, No. 2 (May, 1992) , pp. 245-261
Many arboreal mammals use their forelimbs and forepaws for food handling and for locomotion.
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Investigations in pet birds (Agapornis spp.) fed different vitamin K3 contents in the diet

Investigations in pet birds (Agapornis spp.) fed different vitamin K3 contents in the diet

Source: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Volume 89 Page 222 - April/June 2005
In the past many discussions about possible toxic effects of vitamin K3 fed to pet birds arose frequently, and were published also in magazines for pet bird fanciers, in the internet as well as in veterinary journals.
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Diet selection and foraging ecology in Macropodidae (Kangaroos)

Diet selection and foraging ecology in Macropodidae (Kangaroos)

Source: U. Ganslosser and D.B. Croft, University of Erlangen, University of New South Wales, Sidney.
Macropodoids posses morpho-physiological as well as ecological adaptations similar to herbivorous placentals e.g. ungulates.
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Regulation of food intake

Source: T. Lutz, Institute of Veterinary Physiology, University of Zuerich
Adult individuals are usually characterized by a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Food intake is controlled by various feed back loops.
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The digestive tract and life history of small mammals

The digestive tract and life history of small mammals

Bron: P. Langer, Mammal Review
The type of food, differentiation of the large intestine and stomach, and methane production, as well as life history data, are considered in Insectivora, Rodentia and Lagomorpha.
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Foraging patterns of capybaras in a seasonally flooded savanna of Venezuela

Foraging patterns of capybaras in a seasonally flooded savanna of Venezuela

Bron: G. R. Barreto en E. A. Herrera, Journal of Tropical Ecology
The foraging behaviour of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) was assessed in relation to habitat and season in a flooded savanna of Venezuela from February (dry season) 1993 to June (rainy season) 1994.
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Feeding Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in captivity

Feeding Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in captivity

Source: K. Leus, Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp, Belgium.
This paper reviews the available information on stomach anatomy, digestion, foraging behaviour and diet of wild and captive babirusa, in order to formulate a recommended diet for babirusa in zoological gardens.
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White monkey syndrome in infant baboons (Papio species)

White monkey syndrome in infant baboons (Papio species)

Source: P.A. Frost et al, Journal of Medical Primatology Vol. 33, issue 4, page 197, August 2004
Over 23 months, zinc toxicosis was diagnosed in 35 baboons aged 5–12 months in one galvanized metal and concrete cage complex with conditions that led to excessive exposure to environmental zinc.
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Screening of yeasts as probiotic based on capacities to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and to protect against enteropathogen challenge in mice

Screening of yeasts as probiotic based on capacities to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and to protect against enteropathogen challenge in mice

Source: The Journal of general and applied microbiology, 2005 Apr;51(2):83-92.
Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms that exhibit a beneficial effect on the host's health when they are ingested. Two important criteria are used for selection of probiotic microorganisms: they must be able to survive in the gastrointestinal environment and to present at least one beneficial function (colonization resistance, immunomodulation or nutritional contribution).
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Killer appetites

Killer appetites

Source: T.M. Williams, J.A. Estes D.F. Doak, A.M. Springer, the Ecology society of America
KILLER APPETITES: ASSESSING THE ROLE OF PREDATORS IN ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES
Large body size, carnivory, and endothermic costs lead to exceptionally high caloric demands in many mammalian predators. The potential impact on prey resources may be marked but is difficult to demonstrate because of the mobility, sparseness, and cryptic nature of these animals.
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Food hardness and feeding behaviour in old world fruit bats (pteropodidae)

Food hardness and feeding behaviour in old world fruit bats (pteropodidae)

Source: E.R. Dumont, and R. O'Neal, Journal of Mammalogy Volume 85 (2004) Article: pp. 8–14
Old World fruit bats (family Pteropodidae) are common throughout the Paleotropics, where they play an important ecological role as seed dispersers and pollinators. Although many regions host diverse assemblages of fruit bats, mechanisms of resource partitioning are only beginning to be documented.
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Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites

Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites

S. Crissey, K. Ange, K. et al. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 128 (2001) 155-165
Serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids in six canid and four ursid species at four zoos

Nutritional status for six captive canid species ns34 and four captive ursid species ns18 were analyzed. The species analyzed included: African wild dog Lycaon pictus , arctic fox Alopex lagopus , gray wolf Canis lupus , maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus , Mexican wolf Canis lupus baleiyi , red wolf Canis rufus , brown bear Ursus arctos, polar bear Ursus maritimus, spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus, and sun bear Ursus malayanus.
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Respiration rate of hepatocytes varies with body mass in birds

Respiration rate of hepatocytes varies with body mass in birds

Source: P. L. Else, M. D. Brand, N. Turner en A. J. Hulbert
Hepatocytes were isolated from eight species of birds ranging from 13 g zebra finches to 35 kg emus. This represents a 2800-fold range of body mass (Mb).
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Survey of stereotypic behavior in prosimians

Survey of stereotypic behavior in prosimians

Source: L. Rybiski Tarou, M. A. Bloomsmith , T. L. Maple , Am. J. Primatol. 65:181-196, 2005.
Captive animals have been observed to perform a variety of stereotypic behaviors. However, little is known about stereotypic behavior in prosimians. We sent surveys to 96 AZA-accredited institutions to examine stereotypic behavior in these primates. Forty-eight surveys were returned, providing information on 440 individuals of 10 genera.
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Optimal nutrition for athletic performance, with emphasis on fat adaptation in dogs and horses

Kronfeld DS, Ferrante PL, Grandjean D., Department of Animal Science, Virginia University
Four mathematical approaches are proposed to determine optimal ranges of nutrients for specified purposes. For exercise, the diet must provide optimal mixtures of fuels.
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Apparent Calcium Absorption in Growing Dogs of Two Different Sizes

Source: B. Dobenecker, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Germany
The influence of the calcium (Ca) supply on the skeletal health of growing dogs and the ability of dogs to adjust the absorption of this element in cases of over- and undersupply has been investigated by various authors.
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